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      时间:2016-10-25 来源:英语广场

      常规的英语课堂上,阅读的目的仅仅是借助文本材料来学习语音、语法、词汇、句型,理解文本的浅层涵义,掌握概括主旨大意的阅读技能。阅读可以千篇一律地遵循着“读前热身”,“读中提问应答”,“读后小组讨论”,“教师讲解语言点”这些步骤。执教老师往往将语言知识的讲解上成阅读课的重心,而忽略了国家英语课程标准提出的“激发和培养学生学习英语的兴趣”这一阅读教学的首要任务,忽略了学生语言和心智的平衡发展。 
        根据新课标的要求,我们不能仅仅关注学生知识的获取,更需要关注学生的学习策略,情感态度和文化意识的培养。以《典范英语》的阅读教学为例,多元化的文本阅读可以从语言知识、体裁分析、阅读技能、写作技能、文化意识情感态度五个不同的视角来解读,以实现不同的教学目标,发展学生的能力。 
        一、侧重语言知识 
        这一文本解读和相应的教学设计目的在于以阅读教学内容为基础,以培养学生的语言能力为宗旨,以具体的课堂任务为载体,以完成相应的任务为动力,把语言知识和学习技能融为一体。在实际的阅读教学中执教者需要把握好文本内涵和语言知识之间的平衡,从而帮助学生“鱼和熊掌兼得”。 
        【课例片段1】Good English 6 Oh,Otto Chapter 1 
        原文片段 
        Miss Understood told Otto (一个初来地球的外星男孩) to sit with Jo and Charlie and Josh. Then she looked at Jo and added,‘I want you to take care of our new boy and give him a hand if he needs it.’ 
        ‘Please,Miss,’said Otto. ‘I’m not NEW. I’m seven and a half. And I don’t need a hand. I’ve got two hands already. Look!’ 
        ‘Oh,Otto!’ Miss Underwood smiled. ‘Just sit down and be a dear.’ 
        课堂设问及回答 
        T: Can you infer the meaning of ‘give him a hand’ and ‘be a deer’? Tell me your reasons 
        S: (Possible answer) “give him a hand”means help him. As Otto comes from outer space and he knows little about the new environment,he may need help sometimes. “be a deer”means be quiet. We can tell it from the context as Otto behaved too actively. 
        〖说明〗 
        该部分侧重在上下文的语境线索中推测单词、短语的含义,而不是将单词孤立起来进行单纯的词汇教学。有了语境的支撑就可以强化学生对单词、短语的理解,同时也有助于培养学生对上下文进行推导的能力。 
        二、侧重阅读技巧 
        阅读教学应当有计划、有目的地渗透阅读技能。学生能够通过阅读标题预测文本概要;能够通过略读来迅速浏览全文,把握文章大意,,明确作者的写作意图;能够在寻读的过程中,过滤不相干的内容、找准关键信息;同时更能通过精读来仔细体会文义、品味语句。阅读中,教师需要引导学生借助自己的逻辑思考能力、背景知识对文章内容做出理性的推理和分析。 
        【课例片段2】 Good English 6 Arctic Hero Chapter 3 
        课堂讨论及回答1 
        T: List the skills which they(Matthew Henson & Robert Peary,北极探险家)needed to explore the Arctic. 
        Ss: a. Speaking Inuit ; 
        b. Fishing charr and hunting for seals; 
        c. Building igloos,sledges and driving teams of husky dogs; 
        d. Making clothes and boots from animal skin. 
        〖说明〗 
        该部分的设置在于训练学生的筛选文本所给信息的能力,学生需要借助一定的逻辑思考能力在寻读过程中辨认出那些适用于南极探险的必备技能。对文本内容需要做一定的筛选和提炼。 
        课堂讨论及回答2 
        T: Point out the difficulties and dangers they met on the way to the North Pole and how tell me they solve them . 
        S1: When they sailed further north,the sea began to freeze over. they used a dynamite to help them break through. 
        S2: As The ice was high. They dragged their heavy sledges over it by hand 
        S3: Although the journey is long,They set up a line of camps across the sea ice .

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