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    3. 刊物名称:英语广场
    4. 国内刊号:CN 13-1298/G4
    5. 国际刊号:ISSN 1009-6426
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      时间:2017-07-04 来源:英语广场

        【关键词】合作原则 委婉语 语用学 哈利波特
        1. Introduction
        The application of euphemisms is a common language phenomenon in modern society. In a conversation, people use euphemisms to replace straightforward and offending words to avoid hurting others’ feeling. Euphemisms and cooperative principles are two closely interrelated research fields. For one thing, it’s inevitable to cause a violation of cooperative principles while people use euphemisms to express an unpleasant or embarrassing fact. For another, this kind of violation,, which aims to achieve better communication effect, is done deliberately and understood by two parties of communications. Euphemisms can be understood and appreciated from the perspective of cooperative principles. Therefore, the interdependent relationship between euphemisms and cooperative principles justifies the felicities of the mutual study of the two fields. The paper collects euphemism data from Harry Potter, the world’s well-known science fiction, and tries to analyze them on the theory of Cooperative Principle.
        2. Euphemisms; cooperative principles
        2.1 Euphemisms
        Euphemisms comes from euphemismsos in Greek, prefix eu- means “well, pleasant, good”; Stem - pheme means speech. Therefore, euphemisms refer to the “lip service” or “pleasant words”. People have a tendency to use mild, agreeable language when speaking of an unpleasant or embarrassing fact because direct accounts of the fact could make the listener or speaker have negative psychological emotion (邵軍航 2008:14).
        2.2 Cooperative principles
        “Cooperative principles” are put forward by Grice, a famous American linguist and philosopher, because he believes that in the process of communications, the participants observe some principles consciously or unconsciously so as to complete communicative tasks. More specifically, the general principle includes four maxims which are the maxim of quantity, the maxim of quality, the maxim of relation and the maxim of manner respectively. Each maxim is accompanied by some sub-maxims. To observe the maxim of quantity, the speaker needs to give required and not redundant information. To follow the maxim of quality, one should not give information that is false and not supported by evidence. The maxim of relation requires the relevance. The four sub-maxims of manner are clearness, preciseness, conciseness and orderliness (Yule 2000).