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      时间:2017-10-01 来源:英语广场

        【Abstract】Ralph Emerson was a leading American poet, as well as a philosopher known for his championship of the American Transcendentalism movement. This essay seeks to explore his transcendentalist mindscape in his poem Each and All, so as to elucidate his viewpoint of philosophical doctrines when creating.
        【Key words】Emerson; Each and All; Transcendentalism
        1. Introduction
        Ralph Emerson was a leading American poet, as well as a philosopher known for his championship of the American Transcendentalism movement(Zuo Jinmei, 2006:283), which prevailed in America from 1850s and ended with the rise of Realism trend. Each and All was one of Emerson’s early poems. Previous research papers have sought to illustrate and interpret his view of nature(Zhou Chenjia, 2013) and his transcendentalism and confucianism(Zhao Min, 2006) exclusively. Liu Yunfeng wrote to comment the poem from three aspects (Liu Yunfeng, 2011). But few has given a provoking and transcendentality-bound explanatory illustration of his philosophical poem Each and All. In this essay, I tend to shoot a transcendental viewpoint toward this poem and have a relatively comprehensive commentary on the poem so as to read Emerson’s philosophical mindscape. The essay is written in major three parts to give an interpretation on the poem and Emerson’s philosophical tenets. Therefore, I try to render this poem to a mind-provoking reading in the process of individual experiences as a whole.
        2. Commentary on Each and All over a Perspective of Transcendentalism
        2.1 Review of American Transcendentalism
        American Transcendentalism or “New England Transcendentalism” or “American Renaissance” (1836—1855) was the first American intellectual movement, which was the climax of American Romanticism(Zuo Jinmei, 2006:89). The term “transcendentalism” is derived from the Latin verb transcendere meaning to rise above, or to pass beyond the limits. Transcendentalism has been defined as the recognition in man of the capacity of acquiring knowledge transcending the reach of the five senses, or of knowing truth intuitively, or of reaching the divine without the need of an intercessor. As the leader of this movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson interpreted transcendentalism as “whatever belongs to the class of intuitive thought,” and as “idealism as it appears in 1842.” The major concepts that accompanied transcendentalism can be summarized in the following five points.
        It stressed the power of intuition, believing that people could learn things both from the outside world by means of the five senses and from the inner world by intuition.