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      时间:2017-10-02 来源:英语广场

        【Abstract】Public diplomacy gives priority to human interaction, aims to modify the target audience’s perception, attitudes and behavior as well as win the minds and hearts of target audience through persuading and lobbying. To some extent, it is a modern form of propaganda. However, it is not so convincing to view propaganda as an equivalent of public diplomacy.
        【Key words】public diplomacy; propaganda
        1. Introduction
        Public diplomacy research has attracted much attention from international relations, mass communications, and political studies. Cultural diplomacy, a branch of public diplomacy, has also exerted huge influence upon perceptions and attitudes of people overseas. In this essay, whether public diplomacy is a modern form of propaganda or not is discussed. All the examples are about China, public diplomacy in general, which seeks through the exchange of people and ideas to build lasting relationships to a nation’s culture, values, and policies, is discussed with the support of examples of Confucius Institutes and Cultural Year of China.
        2. Definition of Public diplomacy
        Public diplomacy is communication with the publics of foreign countries, as is different to traditional diplomacy which consists of communication between governments. In other words, it shifts from traditional government-to-government diplomacy to a government-to-citizen engagement, focusing on indirect behavioral influences such as culture, values and ideology as the key tools of itself. (Michael, 2007). It is closely related to power and mainly impacted by Joseph Nye’s (1990, 2008) soft power perspective. Central to public diplomacy is the transnational flow of information and ideas. Some see public diplomacy as an idealistic approach to enhance mutual belief and understanding. Others see public diplomacy as a harder-edged policy tool.
        3. Definition of propaganda
        G.H. Szanto (1978:10) states that although propaganda takes many forms, “it is almost always in some form of activated ideology.” According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (1998), propaganda “is the more or less systematic effort to manipulate other people’s beliefs, attitudes, or actions by means of symbols. Deliberateness and a relatively heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas. The propagandist has a specific goals or set of goals”. That partly explains why in the United States, conventional ideas hold that propaganda in a democracy is utilized mostly during times of national crisis. Apparently, propaganda can be used as a tool to win the heart of people to fulfill its goals, especially during crisis.